PSD2 explained

PSD2: The Evolution of Open Banking and its Impact on Cybersecurity

5 min read Β· Dec. 6, 2023
Table of contents


In today's digital age, the financial services industry has witnessed a significant transformation. One of the key developments is the introduction of the Second Payment Services Directive (PSD2). This groundbreaking European Union (EU) regulation has revolutionized the Banking landscape by promoting open banking and enhancing consumer protection. However, with this increased openness and connectivity comes a range of cybersecurity challenges that must be addressed to ensure the secure and reliable operation of financial systems.

What is PSD2?

PSD2, also known as the Second Payment Services Directive, is a regulatory framework introduced by the European Union to regulate payment services and enhance consumer protection. It builds upon the original Payment Services Directive (PSD) which was implemented in 2007. The primary objective of PSD2 is to foster competition, innovation, and security in the payment industry by opening up access to customer account information and payment services.

How is PSD2 Used?

Under PSD2, banks and other financial institutions are required to provide access to customer account information and payment initiation services to licensed third-party providers, known as Third Party Providers (TPPs), through Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). These APIs allow TPPs to securely access customer account data, with the customer's consent, and initiate payments on their behalf. This enables TPPs to develop innovative financial products and services, such as payment initiation, account information aggregation, and personalized financial management apps.

Purpose and Background of PSD2

The introduction of PSD2 was driven by the need to modernize the payment services industry and promote competition and innovation. The original PSD aimed to create a single market for payments within the European Union, but it did not fully address emerging technologies and new market entrants. PSD2 was designed to address these limitations and create a level playing field for all payment service providers.

PSD2 also aims to enhance consumer protection by introducing strong customer authentication (SCA) requirements, ensuring that customers' funds and personal information are adequately safeguarded. Additionally, PSD2 promotes transparency and competition by enabling customers to easily compare financial services and switch providers, ultimately driving down costs and improving service quality.

Examples and Use Cases

PSD2 has given rise to numerous innovative use cases and services within the Banking industry. Here are a few examples:

  1. Account Aggregation: TPPs can aggregate account information from multiple banks into a single interface, providing customers with a consolidated view of their finances. This enables customers to better manage their finances and make more informed decisions.

  2. Payment Initiation: With the customer's consent, TPPs can initiate payments directly from the customer's bank account, eliminating the need for traditional payment methods. This facilitates faster and more convenient transactions, especially in E-commerce scenarios.

  3. Personal Finance Management: TPPs can leverage account information to offer personalized financial management services, such as budgeting tools, expenditure analysis, and financial planning advice. This empowers customers to take control of their financial well-being.

Relevance in the Industry and Cybersecurity Implications

PSD2 has had a profound impact on the financial services industry, driving innovation, competition, and collaboration. However, this increased openness and connectivity also present significant cybersecurity challenges that must be addressed to maintain the integrity and security of the financial ecosystem.

Cybersecurity Challenges and Risks

  1. Data Privacy and Consent: The sharing of customer account information introduces privacy concerns. Financial institutions must ensure that customer consent is obtained and that data is only shared with authorized TPPs, adhering to data protection regulations such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

  2. API Security: The use of APIs for data sharing and payment initiation introduces new attack surfaces and vulnerabilities. Financial institutions must implement robust security measures, such as strong authentication, Encryption, and secure API design, to protect against unauthorized access and data breaches.

  3. Fraud and Identity Theft: The increased connectivity between TPPs, banks, and customers creates opportunities for fraudsters to Exploit vulnerabilities in the system. Financial institutions must implement robust fraud detection and prevention mechanisms, such as transaction monitoring, anomaly detection, and customer authentication controls, to mitigate these risks.

  4. Third-Party Risk management: Financial institutions must carefully assess and manage the risks associated with collaborating with TPPs. This includes evaluating the security posture of TPPs, conducting due diligence, and implementing contractual agreements that define security requirements and responsibilities.

Standards and Best Practices

To address the cybersecurity challenges posed by PSD2, various standards and best practices have emerged. Here are a few key ones:

  1. Open Banking Implementation Entity (OBIE): OBIE, in the UK, has developed a set of technical standards and security guidelines for open banking APIs. These standards provide a blueprint for financial institutions and TPPs to develop secure and interoperable banking APIs.

  2. European Banking Authority (EBA) Guidelines: The EBA has issued guidelines on the security of internet payments and the implementation of strong customer authentication. These guidelines provide financial institutions with recommendations on Risk management, authentication methods, and incident reporting.

  3. OWASP API Security Project: The Open Web Application security Project (OWASP) has developed a comprehensive guide on API security best practices. Financial institutions can leverage these guidelines to identify and address common API security vulnerabilities.

Career Aspects and Opportunities

The implementation of PSD2 has created new career opportunities in the field of cybersecurity and open banking. Professionals with expertise in API security, secure software development, risk management, and Compliance are in high demand. Additionally, there is a growing need for cybersecurity professionals who can assess and mitigate the risks associated with open banking and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements.

To excel in this field, professionals can pursue certifications such as Certified Open Banking Professional (COBP) and Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP). Continuous learning and staying updated with the evolving regulatory landscape are crucial to thrive in this dynamic industry.


PSD2 has transformed the financial services industry by promoting open banking, fostering innovation, and enhancing consumer protection. While the benefits of PSD2 are significant, the cybersecurity challenges it presents cannot be overlooked. Financial institutions must implement robust security measures, adhere to standards and best practices, and collaborate with cybersecurity professionals to ensure the secure and reliable operation of open banking systems. By doing so, they can leverage the opportunities presented by PSD2 while mitigating the associated risks.


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